Leadership in times of crisis

The 17th of October marked a new era for Lebanon. The revolution which aimed at combating the unprecedented level of corruption had a very high cost. The level of uncertainty and volatility being witnessed since then has left its repercussions on the economic and financial level in a way that Lebanon hasn’t experienced during the civil war, post the assassination of late prime minister Hariri or even after July war 2006. Businesses are catastrophically suffering and the whole economy is in crisis. Classical leadership models won’t serve well in such critical times. Being Agile is not an option. Yet not all business leaders have what is required to be agile and to adopt the trendiest leadership models. Lebanon over the past 3 months has become a unique case study which demonstrates how leadership should be exercised during times of crisis.

Around 2,500 years ago, Heraclitus, a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, said, “The only constant in life is change.” Back then, Heraclitus was not able to refresh his Twitter or Facebook account to see that what was trending a minute ago would disappear from his timeline in few seconds.  In that era, the world was not disrupted by this many uncertainties, ambiguities, or complexities. The world was not interconnected as much, and consumers were not spoiled to the extent of updating their needs, wants, demands, desires, tastes, and preferences every so often. Despite all this, Heraclitus had the gall to talk about change!

With these new factors shaping our world, change has gained more momentum than ever before, which requires a kind of leadership responsive or adaptive to this change. Being a manager does not suffice; being a leader is indispensable. It is worth mentioning that even the leadership style that used to be trendy years ago has become obsolete in our new world of business.

Leadership in Action: Complexity

  • According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, organizations are launching more major change initiatives than ever before: three to five per year, on average.
  • The Corporate Executive Board reports that globally, half of employees expect a major change in six months.
  • IBM’s Global Chief Executive Officer Study shows that 79% of CEOs say that the level of uncertainty and complexity will get even higher; less than half say they are prepared to manage it.
  • Forum Global survey of 700 leaders shows that 72% of them report high or extremely high increases in uncertainty within their companies.
  • Forum VOC research indicates that twice as many business leaders say that “the ability to lead change” is a top business challenge as compared with 2010.

Triggers for New Forms of Leadership

  • The skills needed for leadership have changed—more complex and adaptive thinking abilities are needed.
  • The majority of managers have developed by virtue of on-the-job experiences, training, and coaching/ mentoring; while these factors are all still important, leaders are no longer developing fast enough or in the right ways to match the new uncertain environment. A global mindset is required to lead.
  • Companies are facing a development challenge, which is the process of growing “bigger” minds and developing more agility in dealing with problems.
  • The environment has changed—it is more complex, volatile, and unpredictable. In a study conducted by the Center for Creative Leadership, the environment in which leaders must work is characterized by the acronym VUCA. The letters stand for:
  • Volatile: Change happens rapidly and on a large scale
  • Uncertain: The future cannot be predicted with any precision
  • Complex: Challenges are complicated by many factors and there are a few single causes or solutions
  • Ambiguous: There is little clarity on what events mean and what effect they may have

Challenges for Future Leaders

  • Information overload due to complexity and the amount of factors that have an impact on businesses
  • The interconnectedness of systems and business communities
  • The dissolution of traditional organizational boundaries
  • New technologies that disrupt old work practices
  • The different values and expectations of new generations entering the workplace
  • Increased globalization, leading to the need for cross cultural leadership

Skills Required for Future Leaders

  • Reflecting the changes in the environment, especially since the competencies that will be most valuable to future leaders appear to be changing
  • Adaptability/agility
  • Self-awareness
  • Being culturally savvy
  • Constant learning and development
  • Collaboration 
  • Network thinking

Power and Leadership

Power is the ability to get someone to do something he or she would not do otherwise. Having an impact on the behaviors of employees to direct their efforts toward achieving a common goal or a shared vision is what leaders usually aim at. The form of power utilized defines whether the company and employees are being led or managed. In a notable study of power conducted by social psychologists John French and Bertram Raven in 1959, power has been divided into five separate and distinct forms:

  1. Coercive: uses the threat of force to gain compliance
  2. Reward: uses the right of some to offer or deny tangible, social, emotional, or spiritual rewards for others for doing what is wanted or expected of them
  3. Legitimate: uses the authority one has based on his or her position
  4. Referent: is rooted in the belonging one might have to a certain group, while sharing its values and beliefs to a certain extent
  5.  Expert: uses on one’s knowledge, experience, and special skills or talents. Expertise can be demonstrated by reputation, credentials certifying expertise, and actions

With the advent of information technology and knowledge economy, a new form of power gained momentum. Information power comes as a result of possessing knowledge that others need or want. Information can lead to a certain influence, impact decision making, establish credibility, and being in control. Providing rational arguments, using information to persuade others, and using facts and manipulating information can create a power base. The particularity of this form of power is that it is not linked to a position in the organizational chart. Any employee who possesses information that is needed to achieve the organizational goals is powerful. This leads us to a new form of leadership, which is distributed leadership.

When a person suffices oneself with coercive, reward, and legitimate power, one exercises a kind of managerial ability to run the business. However, when power evolves into the expert or informational kind, leadership starts to become more apparent.

Peter Drucker says, “The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers.” Leadership can be perceived as a process of social influence that maximizes the efforts of others toward the achievement of organizational goals.

97 thoughts

  1. crisis is the time when true leaders and resilient organizations are distinguished. The shock reminds the system that it is still alive and can accelerate its performance . Ford produced mechanical ventilators , Uk national health services went for online appointment, and many more is taking place now. Behind all this are leaders who brought their teams up , believed in them , and stepped out of their way after empowering them. The idea of distributed power is something worth mentioning and noting. In well developed leadership mindset , this is not a threat but an asset to the organization.
    Thanks for sharing

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    1. I fully agree, the world in times of crises needs leaders. Managerial skills alone problems, reacting to extreme panic situations and coping with major catastrophes (such as world pandemics, unprecedented recessions and so on). Nowadays company managers must exert leadership skills and in no circumstances be directive and authoritarian, since in times of crisis bossy managers do not enhance productivity or employee motivation, in fact it does the opposite, it slows it down in such cases leaders need to be empathetic, supportive and empower subordinates. True leadership trends or practices change and through times of crises there is a need for adaptability and for more transformational (tfl) leaders and less of the task oriented or transactional (Tsl) ones so, if we review Vuca, we definitely notice the challenges todayas”tomorrow” is defined in times of crises as being volatile, uncertain complex and ambiguous. Therefore while considering Vuca, starting that the world is unknown, foresight ING and forecasting are nearly impossible so, this challenge imposes on leaders to change totally their ways on how to lead, to either lead based on situation, prepare contingency plans and /or develop adaptations to their styles and thus adapt transcendental (TCL) styles.

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  2. Globalization,technology ,economic crises,assassinations,and disasters are major issues being tackled in today’s world.Business leaders possess one of the most difficult and complex mission .Our world today is changing and evolving.Hence, the skills and the knowledge of the leaders are highly needed to be changed in order to adapt to the volatile, uncertain,complex, ambiguous,and unpredictable environment.Leaders should think outside the box for the sake of surviving the company .Keep it up Dr.

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  3. Lebanon as part of the Middle East is considered a small player in the field of economy and business. however, it has delivered to the world a high quality business leaders that left a mark in the world. The main challenge facing Lebanon and the world nowadays is how to keep your business alive in the times of COVID-19. All the traditional business trends, rules and approaches fell apart with the world wide lockdown. This huge, dangerous and risky challenge needs a new type of leaders, out of the box thinking methods. Definitely, some of the traditional standard traits for a business leaders still stands as a benchmark with a new skills to be added to survive the world’s biggest pandemic challenge that is threatening the world we know in its all aspects.

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  4. What a systematic way of shedding the light on the several crisis Lebanon is struggling nowadays! A crisis is when it is most important for leaders to uphold a vital aspect of their role by making a positive difference in people’s lives. Unfortunately, we are surviving an unprecedented economic, social, political and physiological crisis nowadays in Lebanon, especially in the pandemic era. Being a regular manager with the basic skills is considered outdated nowadays. To succeed as for being a leader in times of crisis, the leader has to be trendy, with a global mindset, reflecting openness to globalization, as for being characterized with complex network thinking. Therefore, the traditional power skills a leader possesses are said to be insufficient. Instead, a leader has to possess information power, that comes as a result of possessing knowledge that others need or want. Information can lead to a certain influence, impact decision making, establish credibility, and being in control. This leads us to a new form of leadership, which is distributed leadership. This new form of leadership will definitely cause an improvement in rapid decision making, increase financial transparency, encourage more entrepreneurial, thus generating initiative and innovative ideas that cope with the VUCA environment, and manage desired complex demands.

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  5. Lebanon, out of all the other countries, is the most affected country by this pandemic, due to the previous financial, internal, external… problems that we have been facing for so many years. But this pandemic is yet the worst of all, cause now that the businesses are closed, or open but with no effectiveness or any income, it is the right time for the leader to shine. One has to have new features and characteristics, new skills, new challenges to face, new ways of thinking, and new technologies in order to succeed in his job, to make the employees comfortable and happy, and to run the business. The distributed leadership is what it takes for a leader to do all the aforementioned. and in this way, and beside all the problems that we already face in Lebanon, the companies won’t be affected as much as they are affected nowadays.

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  6. to change what must be changed needs to be determination and mostly get the skills needed to be a leadership such as developing your critical thinking besides, our environment is not always the same and we must change to manage it. besides, leadership is to affecting the practice of workers to coordinate their endeavors toward accomplishing a shared objective or a shared vision.

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  7. 17th of October changed our life. Businesses and people are suffering and our country in crisis. Leadership won’t work well due these circumstances. In the previous period, leadership has its own exceptional way on how should be exercised in Lebanon. As Heraclitus said” The only constant in life is change”. Life is always in change. It is changing rapidly, but we should be ready to know how to face and deal with this change swiftly. Leadership now a day is complex. Organizations and employees are changing; also, the level of uncertainty is high. Thus, the skills of the leadership are difficult. Leaders are not growing fast. The leaders must work under 4 concepts. Volatile (rapid change), uncertain (unpredictable future), complex (complicated challenges) and ambiguous (little clarity on events ). How could a leader work on these 4 concepts with an unpredictable and complex environment? Leaders would face several challenges like overload information, new technologies and new values and expectations. To be able to co-exist this situation leaders must have self awareness, culturally smart, increase their collaboration skills and have constant learning and development.
    Power is the ability to let someone do something he/she would not do. The form of power in the company tells whether the employees are managed or not. Power is divided into 5 forms; Coercive, reward, legitimate, referent and expert. There is a new form of power which is the information power; it gives us the ability to argue something using facts to persuade others. This is not related to a certain position. Anyone in the organization can have this kind of power. This leads to new form of leadership which is distributed leadership.
    To be a leader means to have a power. There is a big relation between being a leader with a great power and his/her position in the organization. In my opinion, for a leader to have power not only regarding information but also relationships, charisma, position, expertise and reward.

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  8. Charles R. Swindoll “Life is 10% what happens to me and 90% of how I react to it.”
    As you mentioned there are new challenges especially in these circumstances that require skills for controlling, making decisions and leadership and the best one is whom he prepares himself to adapt in a fast way with the upcoming events so it’s about the fast and correct react of the manager, leader who studies the whole internal and external environment is the one who can understand and assign jobs based on a well prepared view. Several great men made a revolutionary unconventional managing process that led for a creative and successful results just because they were polishing their minds and acts and as just like what you have mentioned about the skills and power of leadership and all of the positive acts that maintain a healthy decision.
    Great article with great effort, I enjoyed reading it.

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  9. This article simulates Lebanon’s protracted crisis of leadership at work. In light of the crises and underlying collapse, being manager does not suffice; being a leadership is indispensable. You should be a leader to keep your country alive.

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  10. Leadership is not only related to politics, schools and institutions. Every single step in life requires an effective leadership to achieve accurately our goals and objectives. The modification in the concept of leadership is due to many changes that happen under different circumstances (the development of new skills and cognitive abilities, challenges, experiences, and VUCA environment). Unfortunately in Lebanon, we have high levels of knowledge, skills and abilities BUT, due to many issues such as Covid-19 phenomenon, economic crisis and the 17th of October that happened, the consequences show that these KSAs are worthless.

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  11. Unfortunately, Lebanon has been passing by hard obstacles since the aftermath of October 17 and Covid-19. All sectors have been harshly affected. So, in order to save their businesses, leaders must think outside the box, integrate new skills, as well as should look forward the importance of incorporating technology nowadays in any business. All in all, leaders must take new decisions in order to survive this crisis.

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  12. What’s happening today in Lebanon, is a result of many years of unsuccessful work and stabilized thinking, and that when one issue arises, it exploded the other hidden issues that lead to a big crisis in Lebanon that till know we are suffering from in many life domains. That’s because of the leadership style that has been adopted. What happened just proved that leaders in all business domains don’t have that future vision for our organizations. A successful leader should be always ready to confront any issue that might face him. To confront such issues, a leader must be always updating his self with new information, strategies, technologies and culture diversities, because what worked in the past won’t work for today, the past generation is different from today’s one, and will be different from the future one, a leader should be open to change. In addition to that, one leader can’t control everything, but cooperatively, the impossible will become possible. Everything is susceptible to change in any moment. Leaders should have possible and future plans to deal with any surprising issue with minimal negative consequences. Human power is the key, whether for a leader or an employee, the key is his or her knowledge, the information he or she has. Utilizing this power in the correct time and place, will allow the organization at a big level to achieve its goals. In Lebanon today, there’s an urgency to use human information power to deal with the crisis we are passing through, by putting our hands together.

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  13. Crisis is an unpredictable state that disrupts normal operations of the organization and that requires immediate action taking. As states crisis cannot be predicted beforehand and they deactivate normal processes, it is required to plan an efficient crisis management and a sound management skill. Crisis management plan can minimize damages of a potential crisis and ensure preparedness against crisis. Just as it is wrong to see crisis as a destiny of the organization and thus cede it to its fate, it is also wrong to take no precautions and not set up a crisis action plan by assuming that the organization will never encounter a crisis. If organizations are to attain their objectives, they shall identify potential states of crisis and set up necessary sub-structure systems, operation processes and strategies. States of crisis creates motivation and empowers mutual trust. This is a common conscience desired to be created by leaders in regular times. A crisis also enables the leader to take and apply decisions in an authoritative way as it ensures cooperation for the achievement of objectives.

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  14. As the rapidly consecutive political and economical crisis occurred in Lebanon, a new business- related perspective is strictly required. The actual leadership style has nothing to do with the lebanese volatile, ambiguous, uncertain, and complex marketplace. Consequently, there is a massive need to incorporate a responsive and adaptive leadership that rescues the remaining lebanses shipwreck. A recent trendy leadership is not as quick as a flash in the midst of this change. It requires the combination of yesterday’s expertise, today’s vision, and tomorrow’s plan. Once adopting this ideology, leaders would be more familiar in dealing with unprecedented circumstances. In other words, they will be armed with information power that enables them to shape the direction of their leadership in terms of management, staffing, challenges, decision making, and so on. Acquiring this information power would definitely lead to a new form of leadership “distributive leadership”. In conclusion, Dr.Youness article was a role model of explaining transformational leadership in face of the catastrophically Lebanese economy.

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  15. Leadership is everywhere in the war, revolution and workplace. The absence of leadership is very costly. Leadership skills are renewable to be adaptive to new thinking and abilities. Leaders have to be ready for any new challenge and update in the field of work removing all traditional thinking and accepting new trends. Lebanon has received many unexpected crises which influenced the financial situation in Lebanon.
    Leaders have to be proactive, acceptable and collaborative. Power is the main component in leadership. Spreading powerful skills motivating workers to proceed and complete toward perfection in work.

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  16. Article 2 : The overall crisis that our country are facing it today which includes the social, economic as well as the health one stimulate the leaders in business field to go through an extraordinary responses. Therefore, as a leaders , they should adapt or follow an efficient practices or actions in which these procedures should maintain workable even after passing the crisis. All in all , as leaders in order to run a successful organization within a sudden changes they should set a clear priorities for the sudden responses and at the same time they should empowering others
    employees in order to implement a suitable solutions that fit those priorities.

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  17. Unfortunately, Lebanon is one of the suffering countries nowadays because of the pandemic and the crisis that appeared after October 17. Certainly, it is during such these hard times leaders appear. Different leadership skills should arise nowadays in order to save organizations and their employees as much as possible.
    In my opinion, information power is the effective kind of power, although it might not last for a long time with the same person; depending on the objective being worked on; but such person is worth being given the power since he will use all the necessary and efficient knowledge to achieve the desired goal.

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  18. This article sheds light on the vital role of leadership needed during the time of crisis. Crisis is to be considered a real test for leaders to measure their efficiency. Their behavior determines their credentials. During the time of crisis, a leader should show honesty, confidence, and strength. They should aim to empower the entire team to cling firmly. Because our world is always changing, leaders should tackle more complex strategies and skills. Hence, in time of crisis, a well-developed leader is set under challenge and not under pressure.

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  19. Lebanon nowadays is facing the worst crisis since the civil war. 17Oct revolution, Covid-19, and the economic crisis affects all the domains harshly. The absence of leadership in these pandemic days will cost the organizations a lot. adopting the right leadership and qualified and informative leaders in Lebanese organizations will lead to rescue them and protect them from breakdown and collapse. leaders in these crisis must be highly informative with the current situation the country is facing, try to update past planning in order to suit the situation we are living, make sure to take the right decisions concerning employees, insurances, planning, salaries and many other responsibilities, and utilize the informative power associated with the charisma, rewards and position in the right way to conserve Lebanese organization.

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  20. In the last two years Lebanon was facing pandemic in different faces. The revolution, the economical problems, covid-19, the dollar’s problem and then the explosion. All these pandemics changed our life, businesses and people are suffering. Leadership now a day is complex, since the organizations and the employees are changing because they cannot afford the increase in the price of everything in the country. So leaders in Lebanon should now take a new decisions in order to rescue the country and to survive after all these crisis.

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  21. Power is the ability to get someone to do something he or she would not do otherwise. I do absolutely in love with this article how inspiring and empowering those words were chosen with strength and hope for a better future allowing us to think more and dream always for the best, and for sure we are in a changing word and minds we have always to be up to date of everything around in order to be able to cope.
    Were Given This Life Because You Are Strong Enough To Live It so we have to be strong enough to change for the better always as an example through what is Lebanon suffering from all the crises and much more leaders should take good actions in order to raise up their people helping them to raise up Lebanon again to shine like other countries.
    Leaders should be always aware and ready for everything to happen every single moment to lead people to do the right thing in the right moment and always to have a plan B and C for everything they are doing.
    great effort, really enjoyed reading this.

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  22. The Lebanese crisis is not a newborn one. It was created since thirty years ago, and now we harvest what was planted. Our parents lived an era of Economic prosperity during the sixties of the previous century. But Alas, that was a history, and what are we suffering nowadays is due to the political and sectarian conflicts in all levels. The corruption that we have reached nowadays, was planned since a long time ago and what happened on October 17 was only a result of this corruption that pervading our institutions and many leaders.
    So, do we have the courage of change and the ability to do it?

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  23. Leadership in times of crises proves real leadership. If leaders can only operate in perfect environments with no changes, then they are not true leaders. All what have been mentioned above regarding leadership skills in times of crises are essential points; however, I find that the most important skill a leader MUST possess in these difficult times is emotional awareness/intelligence. Leaders should be able to make sense of their emotions and understand other’s emotions. This will elevate their communication skills with people, thus knowing where some gaps are in the workplace, paving the way for improvement.

    A great leader can look at someone today and say: ” How are you doing? How can I help you?”.

    Humbleness is key.

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  24. Well said !
    A true leader never only shines when the going is good, but also when things are rough Their job is crucial during rough times. They have to prove what true leaders are. You can see what true leaders are in the eyes of the people around them. People around them should be motivated to work harder and make more significant contributions to the betterment of the organization. One of the most important criteria for what makes good leaders is being problem solvers. They should not focus on the problem but on working towards a solution. They may not have the answers all the time but will always be working to get answers.

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  25. In the time frame following the modern Lebanese revolution, the lack of an effective leadership has left Lebanon as a shell of it’s former self. Exacerbating the already sensitive socio-economic state of the country, the pandemic has necessitated the need for a drastic change in leadership. In times like these, the cardinal aspects of leadership change drastically; favoring agility in thinking, collaboration, adaptability, self & cultural awareness, and the capacity to handle the complexity and volatility of the future. These leadership features are hard to come by naturally in a person and nevertheless, the training of leaders is being outpaced by the tides of international change. This demands global collaboration to produce competent governing minds for positions of global influence, all armed with up-to-date information power to take on their time’s challenges. Lebanon can benefit from a unifying leader, representing a guiding light in these bleak times, but the overwhelming diversity of this country requires an especially powerful character to lead it. This hypothetical character must be well versed on the details of its citizens woes, poses the charisma and power to properly enforce plans and unite the land under one goal, and finally be flexible to the opinions and situations they may face.

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  26. I totally agree with the idea of everything around us is in constant change, that’s why it is normal that leadership undergoes several changes, regarding everything around COVID-19 and the revolution of October 17 in Lebanon. However, the numbers caught my attention, where 72% out of 700 leaders are uncertain within their companies is a very high number. Of with the skills mentioned: self-awareness, collaboration, network thinking…. If a leader have these skills he/she will be able to overcome the challenges referred to by Dr Hasan. Finally, regarding power and leadership, the new form of power “Information Power” has been discovered. I also like the idea of distributed leadership, which allows an employee with certain info to take a part in making decisions and regulations.

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  27. Change, whether it comes as a result of crisis or it is a planned change, leads to growth opportunities. The case of Lebanon was a great model example to shed the light on the importance of change of leadership characteristics in management. Lebanese economy and business were highly affected by the situation the country is facing since October 2019, and most classical leadership models didn’t serve well in such periods. Thus as Hercalitus said that there is nothing constant in life except for change, there is a great need and importance for organizational change in a continually changing world. All those changing factors required new forms of leadership skills. Leaders must have the ability to lead the change, acquire more complex and adaptive thinking abilities, and have the leadership and information power. Leaders must take the chance of this change to develop new skills, encourage innovation, develop staff, and avoid catastrophic consequences. The smooth flow and transition of ideas in this blog made it very interesting to read and to understand the purpose behind it as well. Amazing write-up!

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  28. Heraclitus, said, “The only constant in life is change”, and I would say that the only way to outrun this change is to demonstrate a lead character with a mindset that shows 21-century skills and holds the knowledge, and has the strength to influence others positively. He should control and maneuver the VUCA environment dimensions through developing and implementing coherent, effective, and efficient policies using the right combination of expert and informational powers to achieve the organizational goals and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the firm. “The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in the moments of comfort, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.”— Martin Luther King, Jr., Civil rights leader, and minister. So, a skilled leader seizes the chance to overtake the changes during globalization for the better of his firm.
    To decrease the effect of the instability and uncertainty and their influence on the Lebanese economic and financial strength, leaders in Lebanon should develop and demonstrate the required leader kind with all the aspects mentioned previously in this article.

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  29. Only the crisis tests the leader, either he proves himself or he is destroyed. In a country like Lebanon, even if you think about the “surprises” that might happen, you wake up the next day to a problem you haven’t thought about before. Everything can turn into a problem and a challenge, in every sense of the word, even if it is an obvious and basic thing in life.
    It is not easy to adapt quickly in a country that lives its life day by day without a clear vision and horizon. I think that the most difficult challenge for a leader is to maintain his positive influence in light of the negativity experienced by the environment. And to make others believe in his decision and follow it, here trust and good communication plays an important role. Therefore, the leader must be fully aware of all the methods and training that help him overcome crises.

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  30. “Crisis can break or make a leader”. The real test of leadership does not occur when everything is smooth sailing. Rather, it is tested during a crisis. The pandemic of Oct.17 and Covid-19, especially in Lebanon, differs from other crises in our lifetime, and what leaders have to realize is that not everything will move along normally. It is essential at this point to recognize the strengths and abilities that are inside each leader, find their greatness and activate that in other people around. What is needed today for leaders is to stay positive and always know that the hard time will pass, and consider this crisis an opportunity to acknowledge responsibility, take ownership, do better, and use it as a stepping stone to enact a change.

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  31. It seems that leadership is an important component of the recipe of the organization. This person that empowers the whole organization and mainly through motivating the employee and through having the respected points you Dr. mentioned above from coercive, reward, referent, expert, and legitimate. At the same time, there are many challenges that are held by this person and they must require some new skills and mainly the future skills that you also mentioned above like self – awareness, collaboration, and network thinking. In my opinion Dr., the leadership now must evolve and use these skills through virtual programs and mainly through social media that shows a positive effect on the empowering of performance, and this can happen day by day. Also, these finding you shared with us are really valuable, and it makes us as future coordinator or managers to be such a leader and pay attention for the challenges that we may face and how to adapt through the crisis and how to evolve with different changes and mainly technology. It is really relevant to the HR course that you taught us through Fall 2020 -2021 in terms of employee development that depends on appraising and managing performance that needs a motivator that is a good leader in other terms the “Manager” and also in developing employee relations.

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  32. Poor Lebanon! This very small country in size but known all over the world was and is still facing many obstacles that are having devastating impacts on Lebanon and on the Lebanese people psychologically, economically, physiologically… so Lebanon now is stuck within the crisis-the revolution, the explosion, the economic state, and the pandemic. As you mentioned in the article, powerful and skillful leaders (intrinsic and extrinsic) are really needed now to help Lebanon fight and survive this situation where they work to improve their organizations; which will be reflected directly and positively on the Lebanese situation. Also as you mentioned, the classical leadership model won’t help in such critical situations; so new leadership forms must be evolved so it can deal with the crisis. The leaders must expect many challenges that they might face so they should develop new managerial skills to deal with the situation. On the other hand, the leaders must accept that the world is changing and should adapt to this change. They must know that it is a complex duty that requires generating new powerful skills that are indispensable for lifting Lebanon from this crisis!

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  33. It’s an important article! Sadly, in Lebanon, we have a lot of crisis because we don’t have a good leader to change to the positive side. A good leader should be prepared for any situation and to be responsible, and to be honest. In the last part of the article, you mention what Peter Drucker says: “the only definition of a leader is someone who has followers”. So the leadership is a method to influence society.

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  34. With the complexity of leadership in form of a VUCA environment and politic and economic crisis around the world, future leaders have to be savvy, courage and brave to lead the world towards a better and safer place. They should encourage information power to reach a distributed leadership that can raise the value of the company which they lead and can make an influence in the changeable society.

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  35. “What leaders have to realize is that when a crisis hits, you can’t just rest on your laurels and think that everything will move along normally,” Ronald Riggio. Any crisis that hits leaves its effects on the market place and business environment, for example the Lebanese crisis that began in 2019 and is still ongoing politically, economically and in addition to the covid-19 pandemic that made it worse. Most of the organization were closed or disrupted or destructed, for the leader to succeed in a struggling organization, the leader has to follow the trends and think globally. Leaders should have information and knowledge that affect the decision-making. A distributed leadership in this case will cause a change in making decisions and create innovative ideas that adapt with (VUCA) environment and thus manage complex demands. As a leader, any kind of crisis is an opportunity to find your greatness and to activate that in other people around you.

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  36. “Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality.”
    Crisis does not need normal people with traditional thinking and high knowledge to deal with, crisis needs courageous people with unfamiliar kind of thinking, positively crazy people. Since 17th, Oct. 2019 , our Lebanon has suffered from the deepest crisis that reflects its impact on the society with all its sections, political, financial, educational, economical, social, and medical domains. Lack of opportunities for changing and dealing with this catastrophe was the big title of the time and the absence of real leaders is the cause of this frustration. A true leader with a deep vision, is a must, not only to solve the problems and encounter the challenges, but to avoid any upcoming crisis, or at least minimize its impact and results. For this reason, managing human resources should be a priority in our institutions and choosing the leaders, even the political ones, should depend on strong basics that all the values, required knowledge and experience, and the personality of a leader are exceedingly present. So, a faithful, dynamic, self-aware, social intelligent, ambitious, collaborative, serious, and up to date leader is what we need. In fact, we need exceptional leaders, even crazy ones to get out of the hole because I believe in Steve Jobs quote “The people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world are the ones who do.”

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  37. Sorry to say, our country Lebanon is suffering from pandemic, political and economic crises that happened after OCT 17. Real leadership appears in such Volatile, ambiguous, uncertain, and Ambiguous (VUCA) environment. Intelligent and skilled leaders will keep our country alive by being prepared and alert for every single detail to lead the right people to the right place and know how to train them in order to be updated on what is going around and change weaknesses and threatens to strength and opportunities respectively. In other words, the shrinkage of uncertainty and its effect on Lebanese financial stage will be achieved by strong and solid leadership that are characterized by skills mentioned in the article.
    I really enjoyed reading this useful article

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  38. Unfortunately our dear Lebanon is going through a catastrophic situation since years but it was clearly seen upon the revolution of 17 October. Economical crises, increase in the dollar exchange rate, unemployment and many more crises, I can tell all of what mentioned was the reason behind writing this significant article to shed light on the importance of changing in the leaders’ perspective toward leadership to guarantee that the world of business and the economical system will collapse.
    A serious issue tackled in a perfect way.
    Good job Dr. Hassan
    Always impressing

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  39. “Crises create great ones” is a saying we hear throughout history.
    And the great ones I mean here are the leaders. Leader who are effective and they represent a driving tool for the functioning of the companies and organizations of all kinds.
    Events during crisis are usually hasty, changing, vague, unclear, and sometimes risky. All of this create challenges that face leaders and make them more enthusiastic and professional in changing their plans and ways to lead their institutions to be more flexible and realistic.
    These coping skills are considered difficult and complex and they need high capacities from leaders to accomplish. Also, they have to be more cooperative in dealing with their teams to overcome any challenges or difficulties. It is worth mentioning that great leaders also have to keep up with technology and accelerate the production of the huge number of tools and mechanisms required to continue the work of companies, small or large.

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  40. This article does not simulate the situation in Lebanon only, but goes beyond being an accurate description of most of the countries in the region that lived through the Arab Spring revolutions, and after that, Corona.
    Accordingly, one of the biggest challenges facing the economy of these countries is “a successful leader through his actions, not just his words,” and not only the economy, but even the education, health and political sectors
    Lebanon was and still needs that flexible leader who is able to keep pace with all developments and transfer them to the team he works with. Change here has become the main requirement in the personality of the leader, because keeping up with development and modernity is no longer limited to managers, but has become available to everyone, as Heraclitus said , “The only constant in life is change.” This is why the leader had to be proactive in changing and choosing the most beneficial and suitable for the institution.

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  41. When a crisis hits, leaders have to use their wits! The response to economic, social, and medical pandemics relies heavily on the leader to stay clear in such a disorienting situation. It is a matter of building a sustainable successful team to face any threat that might challenge work. This requires a mindset that accepts “change” and the skills to manage the crisis effects. The VUCA model helps to plan for actions that prevent over-dramatizing of yesterday’s and maybe today’s challenges and offer a tip of looking forward. All the challenges listed in the article are to be eased when leaders master the seven qualities that are also itemized. Lebanon, a case study by itself, has proven over the years that it has a “leading” generation that can turn ashes into treasures only by working collaboratively, learning continuously, and distributing missions equally.

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  42. The article “Leadership in times of crisis” discusses the challenges leaders are facing in times of crisis and in our rapidly developing world. In these times, classical leadership models are not enough to keep up to date with the rapidly changing situation, which requires more skills in order to adopt the trendiest leadership models. The world is progressively changing, which always introduces new needs and trends. This in turn requires a constantly developing leadership that is responsive and adaptive to these changes. The first conflict facing leadership nowadays is the complexity due to the continuously changing majors which increases uncertainty. In fact, the rapid changes in the work environment are becoming volatile and unpredictable, which is making traditional leadership models unable to follow up with the new uncertain environment. This introduces information overload and requires new technologies and more diversity at work. For this purpose, future leaders need to be more flexible, open to learning new skills, highly collaborating, and clever. Finally, to obtain a powerful leadership it is necessary to develop what is known as information power. Traditional forms of power, which are known as coercive, reward, legitimate, referent, and expert power are necessary to develop managerial skills. However, powerful leadership requires a kind of information power that provides the necessary information and facts required to achieve the organization’s goals. Such kind of power can be delivered by any employee who has the required information or skills, which in return enhances collaborative work and thus improves productivity.

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  43. “Leadership can be perceived as a process of social influence that maximizes the efforts of others toward the achievement of organizational goals.” as Dr. Hassan Youness mentioned.
    The leader must be trendy in times of crisis, with a global mentality that represents openness to globalization, as if it were characterized by dynamic network thought. The conventional power skills that a leader possesses are therefore said to be inadequate. Instead, a leader must possess the power of information. Therefore, Information can contribute to a certain influence, influence decision-making, build reputation, and be in charge. Hence, A power base can be generated by presenting logical arguments, using evidence to convince others, and using facts and manipulating information.
    With tasks and teaming, distributed leadership is not just innovative. It also requires a more fluid way of leading over time, thinking about how to keep time; in the present, for the future, and learning from the past.
    Great effort Dr. Hassan keep it forward.
    Best regards

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  44. Leadership development is the key to have a greater impact in our community; a community that best describes it, is VUCA: volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous. To develop professionally and become a true leader, we have to believe in change, as it is the only constant in life. With time, we have to be The Change. We cannot ignore that our communities are changing rapidly and unpredictably. Yet, we can perceive this change with an optimistic lens. Why do not we see all this change and uncertainty as a force pushing us outside our comfort zone triggering us to change as well? We were not born to live. We were born to grow and be the best that we can be. To do so, we should keep educating ourselves to develop the growth mindset because we are in the era where powerful leaders are those who are more intelligent and educated. As humans, we learn mostly by being exposed and open to changes around us. Do not hesitate, throw yourself and expose it. Consequently, you will build a global mindset. When we develop this growth and global mindset, we will become wise and start changing ourselves. Al Rumi said: “Yesterday, I was clever, I wanted to change the world. Today, I am wise, so I am changing myself.” Starting by ourselves, then having a group of agile and committed thinkers, we can change the world. True leaders are innovative and this what distinguishes them from being followers. Being adaptive and responsive are of the important traits leaders need in their journey for it is the most adaptive to change is the one who survives. As John Maxwell stated: “The pessimist complains about the wind. The optimist expects it to change. The leader adjusts the sails.”

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  45. In the last quarter of 2019,the October 17 revolution marked the beginning of a turning page in the history of Lebanon .The Lebanese economy was has been struggling for years ,it is then the major financial restrictions started to be imposed on individuals and organizations .The only way the these organization to keep if a good leadership is who is well skilled with important qualities such as self awareness ,adaptability ,being culturally savvy ,and have constant learning and development ,and know how to collaborate and have the skill of network thinking.The leader ship is very important because he has the impact on the behaviors of employees to direct them toward achieving the goal.( A leader takes people where they want to go .(A great leader takes people where they don’t want to go ,but ought to be)(Rosalynn Carter).The leader ship can play very important role to succeed the team of the institution by processing knowledge that other needs ,an information that leads to certain influence of decision making.The leader ship should have the skill of communication the ability to persuade other with the correct decision .The leadership should be ready to sudden changes he should be ready to put plan B.(leadership is based on inspiration ,not domination;on cooperation,not intimidation)(william Arthur wood)
    (Leaders Thinks and talk about the solutions .Followers think and talk about the problems)(Brain Tracy)

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  46. Lebanon is in the sovereignty of its wickedest catastrophe for many years. The Lebanese government had stepped down throughout growing public rage, backing a disastrous explosion in Beirut on 4 August that killed hundreds of people and wounded around 5000 others. The crash came at a very tough time in Lebanon, that is not only attempting to restrain the increase of the coronavirus, however it is also mired in an economic calamity. The economic conditions has pushed the Lebanese into poverty and deprivation of basic needs, although it activated huge anti-government protests.
    And yes, as you mentioned in this wonderful article, we need skilful leaders to save our Lebanon. Leaders with a vision to execute on planned direction; we also need a new set of expertise and mind-sets. The world is changing that’s why we need a new type of leaders who can take and guide us forward.
    Very well written article, and makes a clear and vital point. Keep speaking out, and thank you for sharing!

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  47. The revolution of October 17’s marked the beginning of a turning point in Lebanon’s history, but all of economic, health and social crisis that Lebanon is facing today is the product of several years of ineffective work and stabilized thinking. Therefore, we need today urgently leaders who have the ability to respond for these situations to put plans that rescues the remaining parts of Lebanon. As we all know that our nations, communities, and organizations are shaped by leaders. Lebanon needs good leaders, to help direct us and make the important large-scale decisions that keep the country going. A good leader should always be prepared to confront any challenge he might encounter. In order to solve such problems, a leader must always refresh him with new knowledge, tactics, technology and diversity of culture; especially because human’s thinking always evolves and change from one generation to another, nothing still stable everything develop with time, so leader should be open to change. I believe that today Lebanon needs a united power to revive it and save it from its current reality, this force is the human power. There is an urgency to use the power of human information to deal with the crisis that we are going through.
    Thanks for sharing this article, it is a very informative one.

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  48. I absolutely concur with the idea about everything around us is in change, that’s why the lack of having leadership has left the crises of Lebanon 17 October revolution and Covid-19. The absence of leadership nowadays will damage the organization a lot, leadership skills should be raised in order to have better organizations and help employees. The information power grabbed my attention is as an important factor for being a leadership, amazing abilities propelling specialists to continue and finish toward flawlessness in work is a must. The overall crisis Lebanon is facing is one of the most suffering countries, socially, economically and as a health factor. With everything taken into account our world is changing, Smart and talented leaders will keep our nation alive by being ready for each and every detail to lead the correct individuals to the ideal spot and ability to prepare them to be refreshed on the thing is going near and change shortcomings and threatens to strengths separately. Leaders ought to have data and information that influence the decision-making, they must have more skills and strategies to give plus the information power as Dr Hasan mentioned, when power evolves into the expert, leadership starts to become more apparent. Great article Dr. keep it up.

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  49. In a time of uncertainty, the only thing certain is that the world and everyone’s role in it are always changing. A leader should be ready to adapt to varying circumstances around him. Many leaders are not well equipped to face the pressure that new technologies and business models pose. A leader should not be one dimensional, and his attributes should include an ability to understand different cultures, increasing ambiguity in the future and evolving complexity of the surrounding circumstances. It’s the duty of anyone, not just a leader, that possesses information that may elevate the work to share; this informational power helps in establishing the community of distributed leadership. This article provided a clear explanation of all these ideas and supplied us with characteristics of future leaders.

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  50. Lebanon is not from today has economic crisis, and of course this problem will be much bigger than before because of that this revolution was born and also back to 2016 also that it was a protest from the Lebanese population but… where it goes ? Here the question as Lebanese who lived quarter of century in it I ask myself if we are always suffer in Lebanon of the problems of economic crisis and how the life here transform to a very expensive also today in 2021 the $ rate change from 1500 to 12000, 15000 and so on … this a big problem that as Lebanese people even after all we lived, we love the life, and maybe all the problem that comes on us we make as habit or we get used to, but that is good for us? Or we should to something? Or maybe we are truly tired from everything happen and also now after one year from this blog nothing changes just the problem transform to a bigger problem also the COVID-19 comes, we truly want a better life in our beloved Country Lebanon and also peaceful we will not forget the port explosion!!! Back to the Business problems, today in 2021 the leadership is very important in all business, and we talk about the business not just big company also small, for example the honor that has a company should to have a bigger experience and leadership skills to deal with this all problem, the economic crisis, the $ rate, the COVID-19 all the company are close and a lot of employees are fired from their work because of this problems, and because the bad leadership that have it, every problem have solution, and solution the most you have leadership skills the most will be successful in your business life and even in front your employees you will be their leader in life not just in work , you should not be boss on them if you want anything from them talk in a bad way and say I am the boss here you should to do anything I want or you got fired , no you should to be their role model in business and in their life.
    Thanks for sharing this blog with us even after one year, and now you are in 2021 we are still suffering from this all problem.

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